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Февральская революция 1917 года, уничтожившая Российскую империю, запустила процессы системной дезинтеграции, разрушающие страну. Катализатором распада мировой державы стало неумелое управление государством Временным правительством. Последствиями этого стали всплеск сепаратизма, обострение национальных противоречий, а также образование неподконтрольных Российскому государству правительств на территории страны.

Вначале были с белыми

Возрождение национального самосознания народов России осложнялось реалиями гражданской войны, где зачастую все воевали против всех, и вчерашний союзник становился врагом и наоборот. Не стала исключением и Башкирия. Первоначально Башкирскую автономию не признавали ни белые, ни красные. И арест членов Башкирского правительства в феврале 1918 года большевиками достаточно показателен – он стал одним из факторов, склонивших к сотрудничеству Башкирское правительство с белыми. Значимым фактором, влияющим на расстановку сил, было создание автономной системы управления в Малой Башкирии и формирование башкирских дивизий, первоначально участвующих в боях на стороне Белой армии. Когда Колчак провозгласил политику непризнания автономий и национальных войск и издал распоряжение о роспуске Башкирского правительства, ситуация резко изменилась. Башкирская автономия начала переговоры о заключении соглашения с Советской властью и о переходе башкирских войск на сторону Красной Армии.

Первая автономия

Переход Башкирской автономии на сторону Советской власти изменил расклад сил на Урале и способствовал поражению Колчака. Участие башкирских войск в разгроме Юденича под Петроградом стало ключевым фактором победы Красной Армии.

Соглашение центральной Советской власти с Башкирским правительством о Советской автономии Башкирии было подписано 20 марта 1919 года председателем Совнаркома В.И. Лениным. Башкирия первая и единственная автономная республика России, созданная на договорных началах. Создание Башкирской автономии стало первым этапом федерализации России, определяющим государственное устройство нашей страны, существующее до настоящего времени. По-разному сложились судьбы участников тех событий. Ахмет-Заки Валиди, один из основателей Башкирской автономии, в итоге бежал из России, став ученым-востоковедом с мировым именем.

Башкирия в годы СССР

Двадцатый век очень изменил Башкирию. Открытие нефтяных месторождений в 30-х годах превратило аграрный регион в крупнейший экономический центр страны. Создание крупнейших авиапромышленных предприятий, машиностроительных комплексов, химических производств преобразовало республику. К сожалению, распад Советского Союза нивелировал многие наши достижения, но тем не менее Башкортостан все еще один из ведущих российских регионов.

Наша сила – в культуре

Обычно 20 марта в республике проходит незаметно, хотя в этот день зародилась государственность Башкирии, определившая наше современное государственное устройство. Сила Башкортостана не только в экономике, но и в истории, культуре. Необходимо формировать историческую память у детей о наших истоках, национальных исторических лидерах, создавая гордость за достижения наших предшественников. Я против помпезности и официоза, но есть же и другие возможности формирования народной памяти о значимых вехах нашей истории. Надеюсь, что историческое сообщество и власть смогут найти необходимые коммуникации и мы не будем забывать важные исторические события.

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Февральская революция 1917 года, уничтожившая Российскую империю, запустила процессы системной дезинтеграции, разрушающие страну. Катализатором распада мировой державы стало неумелое управление государством Временным правительством. Последствиями этого стали всплеск сепаратизма, обострение национальных противоречий, а также образование неподконтрольных Российскому государству правительств на территории страны.

Вначале были с белыми

Возрождение национального самосознания народов России осложнялось реалиями гражданской войны, где зачастую все воевали против всех, и вчерашний союзник становился врагом и наоборот. Не стала исключением и Башкирия. Первоначально Башкирскую автономию не признавали ни белые, ни красные. И арест членов Башкирского правительства в феврале 1918 года большевиками достаточно показателен – он стал одним из факторов, склонивших к сотрудничеству Башкирское правительство с белыми. Значимым фактором, влияющим на расстановку сил, было создание автономной системы управления в Малой Башкирии и формирование башкирских дивизий, первоначально участвующих в боях на стороне Белой армии. Когда Колчак провозгласил политику непризнания автономий и национальных войск и издал распоряжение о роспуске Башкирского правительства, ситуация резко изменилась. Башкирская автономия начала переговоры о заключении соглашения с Советской властью и о переходе башкирских войск на сторону Красной Армии.

Первая автономия

Переход Башкирской автономии на сторону Советской власти изменил расклад сил на Урале и способствовал поражению Колчака. Участие башкирских войск в разгроме Юденича под Петроградом стало ключевым фактором победы Красной Армии.

Соглашение центральной Советской власти с Башкирским правительством о Советской автономии Башкирии было подписано 20 марта 1919 года председателем Совнаркома В.И. Лениным. Башкирия первая и единственная автономная республика России, созданная на договорных началах. Создание Башкирской автономии стало первым этапом федерализации России, определяющим государственное устройство нашей страны, существующее до настоящего времени. По-разному сложились судьбы участников тех событий. Ахмет-Заки Валиди, один из основателей Башкирской автономии, в итоге бежал из России, став ученым-востоковедом с мировым именем.

Башкирия в годы СССР

Двадцатый век очень изменил Башкирию. Открытие нефтяных месторождений в 30-х годах превратило аграрный регион в крупнейший экономический центр страны. Создание крупнейших авиапромышленных предприятий, машиностроительных комплексов, химических производств преобразовало республику. К сожалению, распад Советского Союза нивелировал многие наши достижения, но тем не менее Башкортостан все еще один из ведущих российских регионов.

Наша сила – в культуре

Обычно 20 марта в республике проходит незаметно, хотя в этот день зародилась государственность Башкирии, определившая наше современное государственное устройство. Сила Башкортостана не только в экономике, но и в истории, культуре. Необходимо формировать историческую память у детей о наших истоках, национальных исторических лидерах, создавая гордость за достижения наших предшественников. Я против помпезности и официоза, но есть же и другие возможности формирования народной памяти о значимых вехах нашей истории. Надеюсь, что историческое сообщество и власть смогут найти необходимые коммуникации и мы не будем забывать важные исторические события.

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) [DESCRIPTION_67] => Array ( ) [~DESCRIPTION_67] => Array ( ) [PROPERTY_VALUE_ID_67] => Array ( ) [~PROPERTY_VALUE_ID_67] => Array ( ) [DESCRIPTION_68] => Array ( ) [~DESCRIPTION_68] => Array ( ) [PROPERTY_VALUE_ID_68] => Array ( ) [~PROPERTY_VALUE_ID_68] => Array ( ) [NAV_RESULT] => [DISPLAY_ACTIVE_FROM] => 14:33, 20 марта 2021 [IPROPERTY_VALUES] => Array ( ) [FIELDS] => Array ( [TAGS] => БАССР, Башкирия, автономия, Уфа, Рустем Шайахметов [PREVIEW_PICTURE] => Array ( [ID] => 278388 [TIMESTAMP_X] => Bitrix\Main\Type\DateTime Object ( [value:protected] => DateTime Object ( [date] => 2021-03-20 14:40:22.000000 [timezone_type] => 3 [timezone] => Asia/Yekaterinburg ) ) [MODULE_ID] => iblock [HEIGHT] => 485 [WIDTH] => 728 [FILE_SIZE] => 31281 [CONTENT_TYPE] => image/jpeg [SUBDIR] => iblock/528 [FILE_NAME] => 528cd17bc78f787eacd03d456794c0ee.jpg [ORIGINAL_NAME] => a39c220b0d3b017cf5641ceff29367f5.jpg [DESCRIPTION] => [HANDLER_ID] => [EXTERNAL_ID] => d6f7aea5614ca9bbb13376bfe4fbeaaf [~src] => [SRC] => /upload/iblock/528/528cd17bc78f787eacd03d456794c0ee.jpg [UNSAFE_SRC] => /upload/iblock/528/528cd17bc78f787eacd03d456794c0ee.jpg [SAFE_SRC] => /upload/iblock/528/528cd17bc78f787eacd03d456794c0ee.jpg [ALT] => Башкирская автономия век спустя: почему об этом нужно помнить [TITLE] => Башкирская автономия век спустя: почему об этом нужно помнить ) [SHOW_COUNTER] => 3309 [CREATED_BY] => 114 [CREATED_USER_NAME] => (proufu) Редакция ) [PROPERTIES] => Array ( [HOME_POSITION] => Array ( [ID] => 69 [TIMESTAMP_X] => 2020-09-21 10:12:46 [IBLOCK_ID] => 2 [NAME] => Расположение на главной [ACTIVE] => Y [SORT] => 10 [CODE] => HOME_POSITION [DEFAULT_VALUE] => [PROPERTY_TYPE] => L [ROW_COUNT] => 1 [COL_COUNT] => 30 [LIST_TYPE] => L [MULTIPLE] => N [XML_ID] => [FILE_TYPE] => [MULTIPLE_CNT] => 5 [TMP_ID] => [LINK_IBLOCK_ID] => 0 [WITH_DESCRIPTION] => N [SEARCHABLE] => Y [FILTRABLE] => N [IS_REQUIRED] => N [VERSION] => 2 [USER_TYPE] => [USER_TYPE_SETTINGS] => [HINT] => [VALUE] => Свободная площадка [DESCRIPTION] => [VALUE_ENUM_ID] => 141 [~VALUE] => Свободная площадка [VALUE_ENUM] => Свободная площадка [VALUE_XML_ID] => 10 [VALUE_SORT] => 10 ) [FORUM_MESSAGE_CNT] => Array ( [ID] => 2 [TIMESTAMP_X] => 2015-02-18 20:33:55 [IBLOCK_ID] => 2 [NAME] => Количество комментариев к элементу [ACTIVE] => Y [SORT] => 500 [CODE] => FORUM_MESSAGE_CNT [DEFAULT_VALUE] => [PROPERTY_TYPE] => N [ROW_COUNT] => 1 [COL_COUNT] => 30 [LIST_TYPE] => L [MULTIPLE] => N [XML_ID] => 63 [FILE_TYPE] => [MULTIPLE_CNT] => 5 [TMP_ID] => [LINK_IBLOCK_ID] => 0 [WITH_DESCRIPTION] => N [SEARCHABLE] => N [FILTRABLE] => N [IS_REQUIRED] => N [VERSION] => 2 [USER_TYPE] => [USER_TYPE_SETTINGS] => [HINT] => [VALUE] => [DESCRIPTION] => [~VALUE] => [~DESCRIPTION] => ) [FORUM_TOPIC_ID] => Array ( [ID] => 3 [TIMESTAMP_X] => 2015-02-18 20:33:55 [IBLOCK_ID] => 2 [NAME] => Тема форума для комментариев [ACTIVE] => Y [SORT] => 500 [CODE] => FORUM_TOPIC_ID [DEFAULT_VALUE] => [PROPERTY_TYPE] => N [ROW_COUNT] => 1 [COL_COUNT] => 30 [LIST_TYPE] => L [MULTIPLE] => N [XML_ID] => 62 [FILE_TYPE] => [MULTIPLE_CNT] => 5 [TMP_ID] => [LINK_IBLOCK_ID] => 0 [WITH_DESCRIPTION] => N [SEARCHABLE] => N [FILTRABLE] => N [IS_REQUIRED] => N [VERSION] => 2 [USER_TYPE] => [USER_TYPE_SETTINGS] => [HINT] => [VALUE] => [DESCRIPTION] => [~VALUE] => [~DESCRIPTION] => ) [MORE_PHOTO] => Array ( [ID] => 4 [TIMESTAMP_X] => 2016-06-24 14:18:28 [IBLOCK_ID] => 2 [NAME] => Изображения (Интервью) [ACTIVE] => Y [SORT] => 500 [CODE] => MORE_PHOTO [DEFAULT_VALUE] => [PROPERTY_TYPE] => F [ROW_COUNT] => 1 [COL_COUNT] => 30 [LIST_TYPE] => L [MULTIPLE] => Y [XML_ID] => 58 [FILE_TYPE] => jpg, gif, bmp, png, jpeg [MULTIPLE_CNT] => 5 [TMP_ID] => [LINK_IBLOCK_ID] => 0 [WITH_DESCRIPTION] => N [SEARCHABLE] => N [FILTRABLE] => N [IS_REQUIRED] => N [VERSION] => 2 [USER_TYPE] => [USER_TYPE_SETTINGS] => [HINT] => Закругленное фото (Размер не меньше 90px*90px) [VALUE] => Array ( [0] => 278390 ) [DESCRIPTION] => Array ( [0] => ) [~VALUE] => Array ( [0] => 278390 ) [~DESCRIPTION] => Array ( [0] => ) ) [PARTMAIN] => Array ( [ID] => 5 [TIMESTAMP_X] => 2015-02-18 20:33:55 [IBLOCK_ID] => 2 [NAME] => Главная новость раздела [ACTIVE] => Y [SORT] => 500 [CODE] => PARTMAIN [DEFAULT_VALUE] => [PROPERTY_TYPE] => L [ROW_COUNT] => 1 [COL_COUNT] => 30 [LIST_TYPE] => C [MULTIPLE] => N [XML_ID] => 56 [FILE_TYPE] => [MULTIPLE_CNT] => 5 [TMP_ID] => [LINK_IBLOCK_ID] => 0 [WITH_DESCRIPTION] => N [SEARCHABLE] => N [FILTRABLE] => N [IS_REQUIRED] => N [VERSION] => 2 [USER_TYPE] => [USER_TYPE_SETTINGS] => [HINT] => [VALUE] => [DESCRIPTION] => [VALUE_ENUM_ID] => [~VALUE] => [VALUE_ENUM] => [VALUE_XML_ID] => [VALUE_SORT] => ) [MAIN] => Array ( [ID] => 6 [TIMESTAMP_X] => 2015-02-18 20:33:55 [IBLOCK_ID] => 2 [NAME] => Главная новость главной страницы [ACTIVE] => Y [SORT] => 500 [CODE] => MAIN [DEFAULT_VALUE] => [PROPERTY_TYPE] => L [ROW_COUNT] => 1 [COL_COUNT] => 30 [LIST_TYPE] => C [MULTIPLE] => N [XML_ID] => 55 [FILE_TYPE] => [MULTIPLE_CNT] => 5 [TMP_ID] => [LINK_IBLOCK_ID] => 0 [WITH_DESCRIPTION] => N [SEARCHABLE] => N [FILTRABLE] => N [IS_REQUIRED] => N [VERSION] => 2 [USER_TYPE] => [USER_TYPE_SETTINGS] => [HINT] => [VALUE] => [DESCRIPTION] => [VALUE_ENUM_ID] => [~VALUE] => [VALUE_ENUM] => [VALUE_XML_ID] => [VALUE_SORT] => ) [THEME] => Array ( [ID] => 7 [TIMESTAMP_X] => 2015-02-18 20:33:55 [IBLOCK_ID] => 2 [NAME] => Тема [ACTIVE] => Y [SORT] => 500 [CODE] => THEME [DEFAULT_VALUE] => [PROPERTY_TYPE] => E [ROW_COUNT] => 1 [COL_COUNT] => 30 [LIST_TYPE] => L [MULTIPLE] => Y [XML_ID] => 54 [FILE_TYPE] => [MULTIPLE_CNT] => 5 [TMP_ID] => [LINK_IBLOCK_ID] => 1 [WITH_DESCRIPTION] => N [SEARCHABLE] => N [FILTRABLE] => N [IS_REQUIRED] => N [VERSION] => 2 [USER_TYPE] => EAutocomplete [USER_TYPE_SETTINGS] => Array ( [VIEW] => A [SHOW_ADD] => Y [MAX_WIDTH] => 250 [MIN_HEIGHT] => 24 [MAX_HEIGHT] => 1000 [BAN_SYM] => ,; [REP_SYM] => [OTHER_REP_SYM] => [IBLOCK_MESS] => Y ) [HINT] => [VALUE] => [DESCRIPTION] => [~VALUE] => [~DESCRIPTION] => ) [LINK_SOURCE] => Array ( [ID] => 8 [TIMESTAMP_X] => 2015-02-18 20:33:55 [IBLOCK_ID] => 2 [NAME] => Источник [ACTIVE] => Y [SORT] => 500 [CODE] => LINK_SOURCE [DEFAULT_VALUE] => [PROPERTY_TYPE] => S [ROW_COUNT] => 1 [COL_COUNT] => 30 [LIST_TYPE] => L [MULTIPLE] => N [XML_ID] => 53 [FILE_TYPE] => [MULTIPLE_CNT] => 5 [TMP_ID] => [LINK_IBLOCK_ID] => 0 [WITH_DESCRIPTION] => N [SEARCHABLE] => N [FILTRABLE] => N [IS_REQUIRED] => N [VERSION] => 2 [USER_TYPE] => [USER_TYPE_SETTINGS] => [HINT] => [VALUE] => [DESCRIPTION] => [~VALUE] => [~DESCRIPTION] => ) [FAVORITE] => Array ( [ID] => 51 [TIMESTAMP_X] => 2016-08-18 20:46:42 [IBLOCK_ID] => 2 [NAME] => Избранное [ACTIVE] => Y [SORT] => 500 [CODE] => FAVORITE [DEFAULT_VALUE] => [PROPERTY_TYPE] => L [ROW_COUNT] => 1 [COL_COUNT] => 30 [LIST_TYPE] => C [MULTIPLE] => N [XML_ID] => [FILE_TYPE] => [MULTIPLE_CNT] => 5 [TMP_ID] => [LINK_IBLOCK_ID] => 0 [WITH_DESCRIPTION] => N [SEARCHABLE] => N [FILTRABLE] => N [IS_REQUIRED] => N [VERSION] => 2 [USER_TYPE] => [USER_TYPE_SETTINGS] => [HINT] => [VALUE] => [DESCRIPTION] => [VALUE_ENUM_ID] => [~VALUE] => [VALUE_ENUM] => [VALUE_XML_ID] => [VALUE_SORT] => ) [SOURCE_PHOTO] => Array ( [ID] => 52 [TIMESTAMP_X] => 2015-02-18 20:33:55 [IBLOCK_ID] => 2 [NAME] => Источник фото [ACTIVE] => Y [SORT] => 500 [CODE] => SOURCE_PHOTO [DEFAULT_VALUE] => [PROPERTY_TYPE] => S [ROW_COUNT] => 1 [COL_COUNT] => 30 [LIST_TYPE] => L [MULTIPLE] => N [XML_ID] => [FILE_TYPE] => [MULTIPLE_CNT] => 5 [TMP_ID] => [LINK_IBLOCK_ID] => 0 [WITH_DESCRIPTION] => N [SEARCHABLE] => N [FILTRABLE] => N [IS_REQUIRED] => N [VERSION] => 2 [USER_TYPE] => [USER_TYPE_SETTINGS] => [HINT] => [VALUE] => [DESCRIPTION] => [~VALUE] => [~DESCRIPTION] => ) [AUTHOR] => Array ( [ID] => 53 [TIMESTAMP_X] => 2020-09-21 14:50:03 [IBLOCK_ID] => 2 [NAME] => Автор материала [ACTIVE] => Y [SORT] => 500 [CODE] => AUTHOR [DEFAULT_VALUE] => [PROPERTY_TYPE] => S [ROW_COUNT] => 1 [COL_COUNT] => 30 [LIST_TYPE] => L [MULTIPLE] => N [XML_ID] => [FILE_TYPE] => [MULTIPLE_CNT] => 5 [TMP_ID] => [LINK_IBLOCK_ID] => 0 [WITH_DESCRIPTION] => N [SEARCHABLE] => Y [FILTRABLE] => N [IS_REQUIRED] => Y [VERSION] => 2 [USER_TYPE] => UserID [USER_TYPE_SETTINGS] => [HINT] => [VALUE] => 114 [DESCRIPTION] => [~VALUE] => 114 [~DESCRIPTION] => ) [LATEST_NEWS_AUTHOR] => Array ( [ID] => 54 [TIMESTAMP_X] => 2015-02-18 20:33:55 [IBLOCK_ID] => 2 [NAME] => Последние материалы автора [ACTIVE] => Y [SORT] => 500 [CODE] => LATEST_NEWS_AUTHOR [DEFAULT_VALUE] => [PROPERTY_TYPE] => E [ROW_COUNT] => 1 [COL_COUNT] => 30 [LIST_TYPE] => L [MULTIPLE] => Y [XML_ID] => [FILE_TYPE] => [MULTIPLE_CNT] => 5 [TMP_ID] => [LINK_IBLOCK_ID] => 2 [WITH_DESCRIPTION] => N [SEARCHABLE] => N [FILTRABLE] => N [IS_REQUIRED] => N [VERSION] => 2 [USER_TYPE] => [USER_TYPE_SETTINGS] => [HINT] => [VALUE] => [DESCRIPTION] => [~VALUE] => [~DESCRIPTION] => ) [PREW_IMG_ELEM] => Array ( [ID] => 55 [TIMESTAMP_X] => 2015-02-18 20:33:55 [IBLOCK_ID] => 2 [NAME] => Отображать картинку в детальном просмотре [ACTIVE] => Y [SORT] => 500 [CODE] => PREW_IMG_ELEM [DEFAULT_VALUE] => [PROPERTY_TYPE] => L [ROW_COUNT] => 1 [COL_COUNT] => 30 [LIST_TYPE] => C [MULTIPLE] => N [XML_ID] => [FILE_TYPE] => [MULTIPLE_CNT] => 5 [TMP_ID] => [LINK_IBLOCK_ID] => 0 [WITH_DESCRIPTION] => N [SEARCHABLE] => N [FILTRABLE] => N [IS_REQUIRED] => N [VERSION] => 2 [USER_TYPE] => [USER_TYPE_SETTINGS] => [HINT] => [VALUE] => да [DESCRIPTION] => [VALUE_ENUM_ID] => 41 [~VALUE] => да [VALUE_ENUM] => да [VALUE_XML_ID] => yes [VALUE_SORT] => 500 ) [RSS] => Array ( [ID] => 62 [TIMESTAMP_X] => 2015-04-07 17:10:29 [IBLOCK_ID] => 2 [NAME] => Выгружать в rss [ACTIVE] => Y [SORT] => 500 [CODE] => RSS [DEFAULT_VALUE] => [PROPERTY_TYPE] => L [ROW_COUNT] => 1 [COL_COUNT] => 30 [LIST_TYPE] => C [MULTIPLE] => N [XML_ID] => [FILE_TYPE] => [MULTIPLE_CNT] => 5 [TMP_ID] => [LINK_IBLOCK_ID] => 0 [WITH_DESCRIPTION] => N [SEARCHABLE] => N [FILTRABLE] => N [IS_REQUIRED] => N [VERSION] => 2 [USER_TYPE] => [USER_TYPE_SETTINGS] => [HINT] => [VALUE] => 1 [DESCRIPTION] => [VALUE_ENUM_ID] => 42 [~VALUE] => 1 [VALUE_ENUM] => 1 [VALUE_XML_ID] => yes [VALUE_SORT] => 500 ) [HEADER_IMG] => Array ( [ID] => 64 [TIMESTAMP_X] => 2015-03-02 15:51:31 [IBLOCK_ID] => 2 [NAME] => Заголовок изображения [ACTIVE] => Y [SORT] => 500 [CODE] => HEADER_IMG [DEFAULT_VALUE] => [PROPERTY_TYPE] => S [ROW_COUNT] => 1 [COL_COUNT] => 30 [LIST_TYPE] => L [MULTIPLE] => N [XML_ID] => [FILE_TYPE] => [MULTIPLE_CNT] => 5 [TMP_ID] => [LINK_IBLOCK_ID] => 0 [WITH_DESCRIPTION] => N [SEARCHABLE] => N [FILTRABLE] => N [IS_REQUIRED] => N [VERSION] => 2 [USER_TYPE] => [USER_TYPE_SETTINGS] => [HINT] => [VALUE] => [DESCRIPTION] => [~VALUE] => [~DESCRIPTION] => ) [NEWS_COMPANY_CAP] => Array ( [ID] => 74 [TIMESTAMP_X] => 2015-08-19 11:54:52 [IBLOCK_ID] => 2 [NAME] => Новости компаний на главной [ACTIVE] => Y [SORT] => 500 [CODE] => NEWS_COMPANY_CAP [DEFAULT_VALUE] => [PROPERTY_TYPE] => L [ROW_COUNT] => 1 [COL_COUNT] => 30 [LIST_TYPE] => C [MULTIPLE] => N [XML_ID] => [FILE_TYPE] => [MULTIPLE_CNT] => 5 [TMP_ID] => [LINK_IBLOCK_ID] => 0 [WITH_DESCRIPTION] => N [SEARCHABLE] => N [FILTRABLE] => N [IS_REQUIRED] => N [VERSION] => 2 [USER_TYPE] => [USER_TYPE_SETTINGS] => [HINT] => [VALUE] => [DESCRIPTION] => [VALUE_ENUM_ID] => [~VALUE] => [VALUE_ENUM] => [VALUE_XML_ID] => [VALUE_SORT] => ) [DATA_END_HOME] => Array ( [ID] => 75 [TIMESTAMP_X] => 2015-08-19 11:54:52 [IBLOCK_ID] => 2 [NAME] => Публиковать на главной (новости компаний) до [ACTIVE] => Y [SORT] => 500 [CODE] => DATA_END_HOME [DEFAULT_VALUE] => [PROPERTY_TYPE] => S [ROW_COUNT] => 1 [COL_COUNT] => 30 [LIST_TYPE] => L [MULTIPLE] => N [XML_ID] => [FILE_TYPE] => [MULTIPLE_CNT] => 5 [TMP_ID] => [LINK_IBLOCK_ID] => 0 [WITH_DESCRIPTION] => N [SEARCHABLE] => N [FILTRABLE] => N [IS_REQUIRED] => N [VERSION] => 2 [USER_TYPE] => DateTime [USER_TYPE_SETTINGS] => [HINT] => [VALUE] => [DESCRIPTION] => [~VALUE] => [~DESCRIPTION] => ) [QUESTION_NUMBER] => Array ( [ID] => 129 [TIMESTAMP_X] => 2016-06-24 14:08:19 [IBLOCK_ID] => 2 [NAME] => Количество карточек [ACTIVE] => Y [SORT] => 500 [CODE] => QUESTION_NUMBER [DEFAULT_VALUE] => [PROPERTY_TYPE] => S [ROW_COUNT] => 1 [COL_COUNT] => 30 [LIST_TYPE] => L [MULTIPLE] => N [XML_ID] => [FILE_TYPE] => [MULTIPLE_CNT] => 5 [TMP_ID] => [LINK_IBLOCK_ID] => 0 [WITH_DESCRIPTION] => N [SEARCHABLE] => N [FILTRABLE] => N [IS_REQUIRED] => N [VERSION] => 2 [USER_TYPE] => [USER_TYPE_SETTINGS] => [HINT] => [VALUE] => [DESCRIPTION] => [~VALUE] => [~DESCRIPTION] => ) [QUESTION_NAME] => Array ( [ID] => 130 [TIMESTAMP_X] => 2016-08-03 13:28:58 [IBLOCK_ID] => 2 [NAME] => Заголовок (Карточки) [ACTIVE] => Y [SORT] => 500 [CODE] => QUESTION_NAME [DEFAULT_VALUE] => [PROPERTY_TYPE] => S [ROW_COUNT] => 1 [COL_COUNT] => 30 [LIST_TYPE] => L [MULTIPLE] => N [XML_ID] => [FILE_TYPE] => [MULTIPLE_CNT] => 5 [TMP_ID] => [LINK_IBLOCK_ID] => 0 [WITH_DESCRIPTION] => N [SEARCHABLE] => N [FILTRABLE] => N [IS_REQUIRED] => N [VERSION] => 2 [USER_TYPE] => [USER_TYPE_SETTINGS] => [HINT] => [VALUE] => [DESCRIPTION] => [~VALUE] => [~DESCRIPTION] => ) [INT_NAME] => Array ( [ID] => 135 [TIMESTAMP_X] => 2016-04-06 18:51:50 [IBLOCK_ID] => 2 [NAME] => ФИО (Интервью) [ACTIVE] => Y [SORT] => 500 [CODE] => INT_NAME [DEFAULT_VALUE] => [PROPERTY_TYPE] => S [ROW_COUNT] => 1 [COL_COUNT] => 30 [LIST_TYPE] => L [MULTIPLE] => N [XML_ID] => [FILE_TYPE] => [MULTIPLE_CNT] => 5 [TMP_ID] => [LINK_IBLOCK_ID] => 0 [WITH_DESCRIPTION] => N [SEARCHABLE] => N [FILTRABLE] => N [IS_REQUIRED] => N [VERSION] => 2 [USER_TYPE] => [USER_TYPE_SETTINGS] => [HINT] => [VALUE] => Рустем Шайахметов [DESCRIPTION] => [~VALUE] => Рустем Шайахметов [~DESCRIPTION] => ) [INT_QUOTE] => Array ( [ID] => 136 [TIMESTAMP_X] => 2016-04-06 18:51:54 [IBLOCK_ID] => 2 [NAME] => Цитата (Интервью) [ACTIVE] => Y [SORT] => 500 [CODE] => INT_QUOTE [DEFAULT_VALUE] => [PROPERTY_TYPE] => S [ROW_COUNT] => 1 [COL_COUNT] => 30 [LIST_TYPE] => L [MULTIPLE] => N [XML_ID] => [FILE_TYPE] => [MULTIPLE_CNT] => 5 [TMP_ID] => [LINK_IBLOCK_ID] => 0 [WITH_DESCRIPTION] => N [SEARCHABLE] => N [FILTRABLE] => N [IS_REQUIRED] => N [VERSION] => 2 [USER_TYPE] => [USER_TYPE_SETTINGS] => [HINT] => [VALUE] => Башкирская автономия век спустя: почему об этом нужно помнить [DESCRIPTION] => [~VALUE] => Башкирская автономия век спустя: почему об этом нужно помнить [~DESCRIPTION] => ) [MEDIA] => Array ( [ID] => 137 [TIMESTAMP_X] => 2016-04-07 15:58:04 [IBLOCK_ID] => 2 [NAME] => Содержание [ACTIVE] => Y [SORT] => 500 [CODE] => MEDIA [DEFAULT_VALUE] => [PROPERTY_TYPE] => L [ROW_COUNT] => 1 [COL_COUNT] => 30 [LIST_TYPE] => L [MULTIPLE] => N [XML_ID] => [FILE_TYPE] => [MULTIPLE_CNT] => 5 [TMP_ID] => [LINK_IBLOCK_ID] => 0 [WITH_DESCRIPTION] => N [SEARCHABLE] => N [FILTRABLE] => N [IS_REQUIRED] => N [VERSION] => 2 [USER_TYPE] => [USER_TYPE_SETTINGS] => [HINT] => [VALUE] => [DESCRIPTION] => [VALUE_ENUM_ID] => [~VALUE] => [VALUE_ENUM] => [VALUE_XML_ID] => [VALUE_SORT] => ) [SCENSE] => Array ( [ID] => 138 [TIMESTAMP_X] => 2016-04-08 18:32:43 [IBLOCK_ID] => 2 [NAME] => Тема сюжета [ACTIVE] => Y [SORT] => 500 [CODE] => SCENSE [DEFAULT_VALUE] => [PROPERTY_TYPE] => S [ROW_COUNT] => 1 [COL_COUNT] => 30 [LIST_TYPE] => L [MULTIPLE] => N [XML_ID] => [FILE_TYPE] => [MULTIPLE_CNT] => 5 [TMP_ID] => [LINK_IBLOCK_ID] => 0 [WITH_DESCRIPTION] => N [SEARCHABLE] => N [FILTRABLE] => N [IS_REQUIRED] => N [VERSION] => 2 [USER_TYPE] => [USER_TYPE_SETTINGS] => [HINT] => [VALUE] => [DESCRIPTION] => [~VALUE] => [~DESCRIPTION] => ) [SCENSE_TOPIC1] => Array ( [ID] => 139 [TIMESTAMP_X] => 2016-04-11 17:38:44 [IBLOCK_ID] => 2 [NAME] => Материал по теме 1 [ACTIVE] => Y [SORT] => 500 [CODE] => SCENSE_TOPIC1 [DEFAULT_VALUE] => [PROPERTY_TYPE] => E [ROW_COUNT] => 1 [COL_COUNT] => 30 [LIST_TYPE] => L [MULTIPLE] => Y [XML_ID] => [FILE_TYPE] => [MULTIPLE_CNT] => 5 [TMP_ID] => [LINK_IBLOCK_ID] => 2 [WITH_DESCRIPTION] => N [SEARCHABLE] => N [FILTRABLE] => N [IS_REQUIRED] => N [VERSION] => 2 [USER_TYPE] => EAutocomplete [USER_TYPE_SETTINGS] => Array ( [VIEW] => A [SHOW_ADD] => N [MAX_WIDTH] => 0 [MIN_HEIGHT] => 24 [MAX_HEIGHT] => 1000 [BAN_SYM] => ,; [REP_SYM] => [OTHER_REP_SYM] => [IBLOCK_MESS] => N ) [HINT] => [VALUE] => [DESCRIPTION] => [~VALUE] => [~DESCRIPTION] => ) [INT_WHOIS] => Array ( [ID] => 140 [TIMESTAMP_X] => 2016-04-12 19:20:55 [IBLOCK_ID] => 2 [NAME] => WhoIs (Интервью) [ACTIVE] => Y [SORT] => 500 [CODE] => INT_WHOIS [DEFAULT_VALUE] => [PROPERTY_TYPE] => S [ROW_COUNT] => 1 [COL_COUNT] => 30 [LIST_TYPE] => L [MULTIPLE] => N [XML_ID] => [FILE_TYPE] => [MULTIPLE_CNT] => 5 [TMP_ID] => [LINK_IBLOCK_ID] => 0 [WITH_DESCRIPTION] => N [SEARCHABLE] => N [FILTRABLE] => N [IS_REQUIRED] => N [VERSION] => 2 [USER_TYPE] => [USER_TYPE_SETTINGS] => [HINT] => [VALUE] => Экономист [DESCRIPTION] => [~VALUE] => Экономист [~DESCRIPTION] => ) [ANONCE] => Array ( [ID] => 143 [TIMESTAMP_X] => 2016-05-19 14:28:09 [IBLOCK_ID] => 2 [NAME] => Анонс для Главной страницы [ACTIVE] => Y [SORT] => 500 [CODE] => ANONCE [DEFAULT_VALUE] => [PROPERTY_TYPE] => S [ROW_COUNT] => 3 [COL_COUNT] => 60 [LIST_TYPE] => L [MULTIPLE] => N [XML_ID] => [FILE_TYPE] => [MULTIPLE_CNT] => 5 [TMP_ID] => [LINK_IBLOCK_ID] => 0 [WITH_DESCRIPTION] => N [SEARCHABLE] => N [FILTRABLE] => N [IS_REQUIRED] => N [VERSION] => 2 [USER_TYPE] => [USER_TYPE_SETTINGS] => [HINT] => [VALUE] => [DESCRIPTION] => [~VALUE] => [~DESCRIPTION] => ) [COMMENT_OFF] => Array ( [ID] => 144 [TIMESTAMP_X] => 2016-05-24 16:58:02 [IBLOCK_ID] => 2 [NAME] => Отключить Комментарии [ACTIVE] => Y [SORT] => 500 [CODE] => COMMENT_OFF [DEFAULT_VALUE] => [PROPERTY_TYPE] => L [ROW_COUNT] => 1 [COL_COUNT] => 30 [LIST_TYPE] => C [MULTIPLE] => N [XML_ID] => [FILE_TYPE] => [MULTIPLE_CNT] => 5 [TMP_ID] => [LINK_IBLOCK_ID] => 0 [WITH_DESCRIPTION] => N [SEARCHABLE] => N [FILTRABLE] => N [IS_REQUIRED] => N [VERSION] => 2 [USER_TYPE] => [USER_TYPE_SETTINGS] => [HINT] => [VALUE] => [DESCRIPTION] => [VALUE_ENUM_ID] => [~VALUE] => [VALUE_ENUM] => [VALUE_XML_ID] => [VALUE_SORT] => ) [ASK_ANSWER] => Array ( [ID] => 145 [TIMESTAMP_X] => 2016-08-03 14:50:36 [IBLOCK_ID] => 2 [NAME] => Карточка [ACTIVE] => Y [SORT] => 500 [CODE] => ASK_ANSWER [DEFAULT_VALUE] => Array ( [TEXT] => [TYPE] => HTML ) [PROPERTY_TYPE] => S [ROW_COUNT] => 2 [COL_COUNT] => 20 [LIST_TYPE] => L [MULTIPLE] => Y [XML_ID] => [FILE_TYPE] => [MULTIPLE_CNT] => 1 [TMP_ID] => [LINK_IBLOCK_ID] => 0 [WITH_DESCRIPTION] => N [SEARCHABLE] => N [FILTRABLE] => N [IS_REQUIRED] => N [VERSION] => 2 [USER_TYPE] => HTML [USER_TYPE_SETTINGS] => Array ( [height] => 300 ) [HINT] => Следющая карточка появится после нажатия кнопки применить [VALUE] => [DESCRIPTION] => [~VALUE] => [~DESCRIPTION] => ) [INPAGE_OFF] => Array ( [ID] => 146 [TIMESTAMP_X] => 2018-08-15 14:52:15 [IBLOCK_ID] => 2 [NAME] => Отключить INPAGE [ACTIVE] => Y [SORT] => 500 [CODE] => INPAGE_OFF [DEFAULT_VALUE] => [PROPERTY_TYPE] => L [ROW_COUNT] => 1 [COL_COUNT] => 30 [LIST_TYPE] => C [MULTIPLE] => N [XML_ID] => [FILE_TYPE] => [MULTIPLE_CNT] => 5 [TMP_ID] => [LINK_IBLOCK_ID] => 0 [WITH_DESCRIPTION] => N [SEARCHABLE] => N [FILTRABLE] => N [IS_REQUIRED] => N [VERSION] => 2 [USER_TYPE] => [USER_TYPE_SETTINGS] => [HINT] => [VALUE] => [DESCRIPTION] => [VALUE_ENUM_ID] => [~VALUE] => [VALUE_ENUM] => [VALUE_XML_ID] => [VALUE_SORT] => ) [DEBUG_ON] => Array ( [ID] => 157 [TIMESTAMP_X] => 2017-03-30 12:01:26 [IBLOCK_ID] => 2 [NAME] => Режим отладки [ACTIVE] => Y [SORT] => 500 [CODE] => DEBUG_ON [DEFAULT_VALUE] => [PROPERTY_TYPE] => L [ROW_COUNT] => 1 [COL_COUNT] => 30 [LIST_TYPE] => C [MULTIPLE] => N [XML_ID] => [FILE_TYPE] => [MULTIPLE_CNT] => 5 [TMP_ID] => [LINK_IBLOCK_ID] => 0 [WITH_DESCRIPTION] => N [SEARCHABLE] => N [FILTRABLE] => N [IS_REQUIRED] => N [VERSION] => 2 [USER_TYPE] => [USER_TYPE_SETTINGS] => [HINT] => [VALUE] => [DESCRIPTION] => [VALUE_ENUM_ID] => [~VALUE] => [VALUE_ENUM] => [VALUE_XML_ID] => [VALUE_SORT] => ) [CP_ON] => Array ( [ID] => 160 [TIMESTAMP_X] => 2019-07-24 09:45:52 [IBLOCK_ID] => 2 [NAME] => Включить Пожертвования Изгелек [ACTIVE] => Y [SORT] => 500 [CODE] => CP_ON [DEFAULT_VALUE] => [PROPERTY_TYPE] => L [ROW_COUNT] => 1 [COL_COUNT] => 30 [LIST_TYPE] => C [MULTIPLE] => N [XML_ID] => [FILE_TYPE] => [MULTIPLE_CNT] => 5 [TMP_ID] => [LINK_IBLOCK_ID] => 0 [WITH_DESCRIPTION] => N [SEARCHABLE] => N [FILTRABLE] => N [IS_REQUIRED] => N [VERSION] => 2 [USER_TYPE] => [USER_TYPE_SETTINGS] => [HINT] => [VALUE] => [DESCRIPTION] => [VALUE_ENUM_ID] => [~VALUE] => [VALUE_ENUM] => [VALUE_XML_ID] => [VALUE_SORT] => ) [LONGREAD] => Array ( [ID] => 174 [TIMESTAMP_X] => 2018-05-24 10:04:21 [IBLOCK_ID] => 2 [NAME] => Лонгрид [ACTIVE] => Y [SORT] => 500 [CODE] => LONGREAD [DEFAULT_VALUE] => [PROPERTY_TYPE] => L [ROW_COUNT] => 1 [COL_COUNT] => 30 [LIST_TYPE] => C [MULTIPLE] => N [XML_ID] => [FILE_TYPE] => [MULTIPLE_CNT] => 5 [TMP_ID] => [LINK_IBLOCK_ID] => 0 [WITH_DESCRIPTION] => N [SEARCHABLE] => N [FILTRABLE] => N [IS_REQUIRED] => N [VERSION] => 2 [USER_TYPE] => [USER_TYPE_SETTINGS] => [HINT] => [VALUE] => [DESCRIPTION] => [VALUE_ENUM_ID] => [~VALUE] => [VALUE_ENUM] => [VALUE_XML_ID] => [VALUE_SORT] => ) [AUDIO] => Array ( [ID] => 176 [TIMESTAMP_X] => 2018-08-16 13:53:42 [IBLOCK_ID] => 2 [NAME] => Аудио файл [ACTIVE] => Y [SORT] => 500 [CODE] => AUDIO [DEFAULT_VALUE] => [PROPERTY_TYPE] => F [ROW_COUNT] => 1 [COL_COUNT] => 10 [LIST_TYPE] => L [MULTIPLE] => N [XML_ID] => [FILE_TYPE] => mp3, wav, midi, snd, au, wma [MULTIPLE_CNT] => 5 [TMP_ID] => [LINK_IBLOCK_ID] => 0 [WITH_DESCRIPTION] => N [SEARCHABLE] => N [FILTRABLE] => N [IS_REQUIRED] => N [VERSION] => 2 [USER_TYPE] => [USER_TYPE_SETTINGS] => [HINT] => [VALUE] => [DESCRIPTION] => [~VALUE] => [~DESCRIPTION] => ) [PREVIEW] => Array ( [ID] => 193 [TIMESTAMP_X] => 2019-03-29 13:44:21 [IBLOCK_ID] => 2 [NAME] => Разрешен предпросмотр [ACTIVE] => Y [SORT] => 500 [CODE] => PREVIEW [DEFAULT_VALUE] => [PROPERTY_TYPE] => L [ROW_COUNT] => 1 [COL_COUNT] => 30 [LIST_TYPE] => C [MULTIPLE] => N [XML_ID] => [FILE_TYPE] => [MULTIPLE_CNT] => 5 [TMP_ID] => [LINK_IBLOCK_ID] => 0 [WITH_DESCRIPTION] => N [SEARCHABLE] => N [FILTRABLE] => N [IS_REQUIRED] => N [VERSION] => 2 [USER_TYPE] => [USER_TYPE_SETTINGS] => [HINT] => [VALUE] => [DESCRIPTION] => [VALUE_ENUM_ID] => [~VALUE] => [VALUE_ENUM] => [VALUE_XML_ID] => [VALUE_SORT] => ) [PODPIS] => Array ( [ID] => 194 [TIMESTAMP_X] => 2019-04-04 10:13:14 [IBLOCK_ID] => 2 [NAME] => Добавить подпись после статьи [ACTIVE] => Y [SORT] => 500 [CODE] => PODPIS [DEFAULT_VALUE] => Array ( [TEXT] => [TYPE] => HTML ) [PROPERTY_TYPE] => S [ROW_COUNT] => 30 [COL_COUNT] => 30 [LIST_TYPE] => L [MULTIPLE] => N [XML_ID] => [FILE_TYPE] => [MULTIPLE_CNT] => 5 [TMP_ID] => [LINK_IBLOCK_ID] => 0 [WITH_DESCRIPTION] => N [SEARCHABLE] => N [FILTRABLE] => N [IS_REQUIRED] => N [VERSION] => 2 [USER_TYPE] => HTML [USER_TYPE_SETTINGS] => Array ( [height] => 200 ) [HINT] => [VALUE] => [DESCRIPTION] => [~VALUE] => [~DESCRIPTION] => ) [VOICE] => Array ( [ID] => 198 [TIMESTAMP_X] => 2020-09-19 16:21:01 [IBLOCK_ID] => 2 [NAME] => Озвучка [ACTIVE] => Y [SORT] => 500 [CODE] => VOICE [DEFAULT_VALUE] => 0 [PROPERTY_TYPE] => N [ROW_COUNT] => 1 [COL_COUNT] => 5 [LIST_TYPE] => L [MULTIPLE] => N [XML_ID] => [FILE_TYPE] => [MULTIPLE_CNT] => 1 [TMP_ID] => [LINK_IBLOCK_ID] => 0 [WITH_DESCRIPTION] => N [SEARCHABLE] => N [FILTRABLE] => N [IS_REQUIRED] => N [VERSION] => 2 [USER_TYPE] => [USER_TYPE_SETTINGS] => [HINT] => [VALUE] => [DESCRIPTION] => [~VALUE] => [~DESCRIPTION] => ) [DONATE_ON] => Array ( [ID] => 199 [TIMESTAMP_X] => 2019-07-24 09:49:33 [IBLOCK_ID] => 2 [NAME] => Включить Пожертвования Proufu [ACTIVE] => Y [SORT] => 500 [CODE] => DONATE_ON [DEFAULT_VALUE] => [PROPERTY_TYPE] => L [ROW_COUNT] => 1 [COL_COUNT] => 30 [LIST_TYPE] => C [MULTIPLE] => N [XML_ID] => [FILE_TYPE] => [MULTIPLE_CNT] => 5 [TMP_ID] => [LINK_IBLOCK_ID] => 0 [WITH_DESCRIPTION] => N [SEARCHABLE] => N [FILTRABLE] => N [IS_REQUIRED] => N [VERSION] => 2 [USER_TYPE] => [USER_TYPE_SETTINGS] => [HINT] => [VALUE] => [DESCRIPTION] => [VALUE_ENUM_ID] => [~VALUE] => [VALUE_ENUM] => [VALUE_XML_ID] => [VALUE_SORT] => ) [ADVERT_OFF] => Array ( [ID] => 201 [TIMESTAMP_X] => 2019-10-23 12:50:09 [IBLOCK_ID] => 2 [NAME] => Отключить всю рекламу [ACTIVE] => Y [SORT] => 500 [CODE] => ADVERT_OFF [DEFAULT_VALUE] => [PROPERTY_TYPE] => L [ROW_COUNT] => 1 [COL_COUNT] => 30 [LIST_TYPE] => C [MULTIPLE] => N [XML_ID] => [FILE_TYPE] => [MULTIPLE_CNT] => 5 [TMP_ID] => [LINK_IBLOCK_ID] => 0 [WITH_DESCRIPTION] => N [SEARCHABLE] => N [FILTRABLE] => N [IS_REQUIRED] => N [VERSION] => 2 [USER_TYPE] => [USER_TYPE_SETTINGS] => [HINT] => [VALUE] => [DESCRIPTION] => [VALUE_ENUM_ID] => [~VALUE] => [VALUE_ENUM] => [VALUE_XML_ID] => [VALUE_SORT] => ) [QUESTION_PODPIS] => Array ( [ID] => 202 [TIMESTAMP_X] => 2020-01-29 12:07:20 [IBLOCK_ID] => 2 [NAME] => Подпись (Карточки) [ACTIVE] => Y [SORT] => 500 [CODE] => QUESTION_PODPIS [DEFAULT_VALUE] => Array ( [TEXT] => [TYPE] => HTML ) [PROPERTY_TYPE] => S [ROW_COUNT] => 10 [COL_COUNT] => 100 [LIST_TYPE] => L [MULTIPLE] => N [XML_ID] => [FILE_TYPE] => [MULTIPLE_CNT] => 5 [TMP_ID] => [LINK_IBLOCK_ID] => 0 [WITH_DESCRIPTION] => N [SEARCHABLE] => N [FILTRABLE] => N [IS_REQUIRED] => N [VERSION] => 2 [USER_TYPE] => HTML [USER_TYPE_SETTINGS] => Array ( [height] => 200 ) [HINT] => [VALUE] => [DESCRIPTION] => [~VALUE] => [~DESCRIPTION] => ) [VIDEO] => Array ( [ID] => 204 [TIMESTAMP_X] => 2020-02-14 15:46:32 [IBLOCK_ID] => 2 [NAME] => Видео [ACTIVE] => Y [SORT] => 500 [CODE] => VIDEO [DEFAULT_VALUE] => Array ( ) [PROPERTY_TYPE] => S [ROW_COUNT] => 1 [COL_COUNT] => 30 [LIST_TYPE] => L [MULTIPLE] => N [XML_ID] => [FILE_TYPE] => [MULTIPLE_CNT] => 5 [TMP_ID] => [LINK_IBLOCK_ID] => 0 [WITH_DESCRIPTION] => N [SEARCHABLE] => N [FILTRABLE] => N [IS_REQUIRED] => N [VERSION] => 2 [USER_TYPE] => video [USER_TYPE_SETTINGS] => Array ( [BUFFER_LENGTH] => 10 [CONTROLBAR] => bottom [AUTOSTART] => N [VOLUME] => 90 [SKIN] => [FLASHVARS] => [WMODE_FLV] => transparent [BGCOLOR] => FFFFFF [COLOR] => 000000 [OVER_COLOR] => 000000 [SCREEN_COLOR] => 000000 [SILVERVARS] => [WMODE_WMV] => windowless [WIDTH] => 720 [HEIGHT] => 420 ) [HINT] => [VALUE] => Array ( ) [DESCRIPTION] => [~VALUE] => Array ( ) [~DESCRIPTION] => ) [REPLACE_AUTHOR] => Array ( [ID] => 206 [TIMESTAMP_X] => 2020-07-15 09:43:26 [IBLOCK_ID] => 2 [NAME] => Заменить автора [ACTIVE] => Y [SORT] => 500 [CODE] => REPLACE_AUTHOR [DEFAULT_VALUE] => [PROPERTY_TYPE] => S [ROW_COUNT] => 1 [COL_COUNT] => 50 [LIST_TYPE] => L [MULTIPLE] => N [XML_ID] => [FILE_TYPE] => [MULTIPLE_CNT] => 5 [TMP_ID] => [LINK_IBLOCK_ID] => 0 [WITH_DESCRIPTION] => N [SEARCHABLE] => N [FILTRABLE] => N [IS_REQUIRED] => N [VERSION] => 2 [USER_TYPE] => [USER_TYPE_SETTINGS] => [HINT] => [VALUE] => Рустем Шайахметов [DESCRIPTION] => [~VALUE] => Рустем Шайахметов [~DESCRIPTION] => ) [vote_count] => Array ( [ID] => 207 [TIMESTAMP_X] => 2020-08-11 08:45:27 [IBLOCK_ID] => 2 [NAME] => Количество проголосовавших [ACTIVE] => Y [SORT] => 500 [CODE] => vote_count [DEFAULT_VALUE] => [PROPERTY_TYPE] => N [ROW_COUNT] => 1 [COL_COUNT] => 30 [LIST_TYPE] => L [MULTIPLE] => N [XML_ID] => [FILE_TYPE] => [MULTIPLE_CNT] => 5 [TMP_ID] => [LINK_IBLOCK_ID] => 0 [WITH_DESCRIPTION] => N [SEARCHABLE] => N [FILTRABLE] => N [IS_REQUIRED] => N [VERSION] => 2 [USER_TYPE] => [USER_TYPE_SETTINGS] => [HINT] => [VALUE] => [DESCRIPTION] => [~VALUE] => [~DESCRIPTION] => ) [vote_sum] => Array ( [ID] => 208 [TIMESTAMP_X] => 2020-08-11 08:45:27 [IBLOCK_ID] => 2 [NAME] => Сумма оценок [ACTIVE] => Y [SORT] => 500 [CODE] => vote_sum [DEFAULT_VALUE] => [PROPERTY_TYPE] => N [ROW_COUNT] => 1 [COL_COUNT] => 30 [LIST_TYPE] => L [MULTIPLE] => N [XML_ID] => [FILE_TYPE] => [MULTIPLE_CNT] => 5 [TMP_ID] => [LINK_IBLOCK_ID] => 0 [WITH_DESCRIPTION] => N [SEARCHABLE] => N [FILTRABLE] => N [IS_REQUIRED] => N [VERSION] => 2 [USER_TYPE] => [USER_TYPE_SETTINGS] => [HINT] => [VALUE] => [DESCRIPTION] => [~VALUE] => [~DESCRIPTION] => ) [rating] => Array ( [ID] => 209 [TIMESTAMP_X] => 2020-08-11 08:45:27 [IBLOCK_ID] => 2 [NAME] => Рейтинг [ACTIVE] => Y [SORT] => 500 [CODE] => rating [DEFAULT_VALUE] => [PROPERTY_TYPE] => N [ROW_COUNT] => 1 [COL_COUNT] => 30 [LIST_TYPE] => L [MULTIPLE] => N [XML_ID] => [FILE_TYPE] => [MULTIPLE_CNT] => 5 [TMP_ID] => [LINK_IBLOCK_ID] => 0 [WITH_DESCRIPTION] => N [SEARCHABLE] => N [FILTRABLE] => N [IS_REQUIRED] => N [VERSION] => 2 [USER_TYPE] => [USER_TYPE_SETTINGS] => [HINT] => [VALUE] => [DESCRIPTION] => [~VALUE] => [~DESCRIPTION] => ) [BLOCK] => Array ( [ID] => 210 [TIMESTAMP_X] => 2020-09-29 19:05:58 [IBLOCK_ID] => 2 [NAME] => Блокировка [ACTIVE] => Y [SORT] => 500 [CODE] => BLOCK [DEFAULT_VALUE] => [PROPERTY_TYPE] => S [ROW_COUNT] => 1 [COL_COUNT] => 30 [LIST_TYPE] => L [MULTIPLE] => N [XML_ID] => [FILE_TYPE] => [MULTIPLE_CNT] => 5 [TMP_ID] => [LINK_IBLOCK_ID] => 0 [WITH_DESCRIPTION] => N [SEARCHABLE] => N [FILTRABLE] => N [IS_REQUIRED] => N [VERSION] => 2 [USER_TYPE] => [USER_TYPE_SETTINGS] => [HINT] => [VALUE] => [DESCRIPTION] => [~VALUE] => [~DESCRIPTION] => ) [NON_LENTA] => Array ( [ID] => 211 [TIMESTAMP_X] => 2020-10-14 13:36:12 [IBLOCK_ID] => 2 [NAME] => Не публиковать в ленту [ACTIVE] => Y [SORT] => 500 [CODE] => NON_LENTA [DEFAULT_VALUE] => [PROPERTY_TYPE] => L [ROW_COUNT] => 1 [COL_COUNT] => 30 [LIST_TYPE] => L [MULTIPLE] => N [XML_ID] => [FILE_TYPE] => [MULTIPLE_CNT] => 5 [TMP_ID] => [LINK_IBLOCK_ID] => 0 [WITH_DESCRIPTION] => N [SEARCHABLE] => N [FILTRABLE] => N [IS_REQUIRED] => N [VERSION] => 2 [USER_TYPE] => [USER_TYPE_SETTINGS] => [HINT] => Dolov [VALUE] => [DESCRIPTION] => [VALUE_ENUM_ID] => [~VALUE] => [VALUE_ENUM] => [VALUE_XML_ID] => [VALUE_SORT] => ) [LENTA_FAVORITE_OFF] => Array ( [ID] => 216 [TIMESTAMP_X] => 2021-02-16 11:42:36 [IBLOCK_ID] => 2 [NAME] => Снять закрепление [ACTIVE] => Y [SORT] => 500 [CODE] => LENTA_FAVORITE_OFF [DEFAULT_VALUE] => [PROPERTY_TYPE] => S [ROW_COUNT] => 1 [COL_COUNT] => 30 [LIST_TYPE] => L [MULTIPLE] => N [XML_ID] => [FILE_TYPE] => [MULTIPLE_CNT] => 5 [TMP_ID] => [LINK_IBLOCK_ID] => 0 [WITH_DESCRIPTION] => N [SEARCHABLE] => N [FILTRABLE] => N [IS_REQUIRED] => N [VERSION] => 2 [USER_TYPE] => DateTime [USER_TYPE_SETTINGS] => [HINT] => [VALUE] => [DESCRIPTION] => [~VALUE] => [~DESCRIPTION] => ) [MATERIAL_TOPIC1] => Array ( [ID] => 58 [TIMESTAMP_X] => 2020-12-08 17:53:04 [IBLOCK_ID] => 2 [NAME] => Читайте также (Блок 1) [ACTIVE] => Y [SORT] => 501 [CODE] => MATERIAL_TOPIC1 [DEFAULT_VALUE] => [PROPERTY_TYPE] => E [ROW_COUNT] => 1 [COL_COUNT] => 30 [LIST_TYPE] => L [MULTIPLE] => Y [XML_ID] => [FILE_TYPE] => [MULTIPLE_CNT] => 5 [TMP_ID] => [LINK_IBLOCK_ID] => 2 [WITH_DESCRIPTION] => N [SEARCHABLE] => N [FILTRABLE] => N [IS_REQUIRED] => N [VERSION] => 2 [USER_TYPE] => EAutocomplete [USER_TYPE_SETTINGS] => Array ( [VIEW] => E [SHOW_ADD] => N [MAX_WIDTH] => 0 [MIN_HEIGHT] => 24 [MAX_HEIGHT] => 1000 [BAN_SYM] => ,; [REP_SYM] => [OTHER_REP_SYM] => [IBLOCK_MESS] => N ) [HINT] => [VALUE] => [DESCRIPTION] => [~VALUE] => [~DESCRIPTION] => ) [MATERIAL_TOPIC2] => Array ( [ID] => 60 [TIMESTAMP_X] => 2020-06-03 10:28:39 [IBLOCK_ID] => 2 [NAME] => Читайте также (Блок 2) [ACTIVE] => Y [SORT] => 501 [CODE] => MATERIAL_TOPIC2 [DEFAULT_VALUE] => [PROPERTY_TYPE] => E [ROW_COUNT] => 1 [COL_COUNT] => 30 [LIST_TYPE] => L [MULTIPLE] => Y [XML_ID] => [FILE_TYPE] => [MULTIPLE_CNT] => 5 [TMP_ID] => [LINK_IBLOCK_ID] => 2 [WITH_DESCRIPTION] => N [SEARCHABLE] => N [FILTRABLE] => N [IS_REQUIRED] => N [VERSION] => 2 [USER_TYPE] => EAutocomplete [USER_TYPE_SETTINGS] => Array ( [VIEW] => E [SHOW_ADD] => N [MAX_WIDTH] => 0 [MIN_HEIGHT] => 24 [MAX_HEIGHT] => 1000 [BAN_SYM] => ,; [REP_SYM] => [OTHER_REP_SYM] => [IBLOCK_MESS] => N ) [HINT] => [VALUE] => [DESCRIPTION] => [~VALUE] => [~DESCRIPTION] => ) [MATERIAL_TOPIC3] => Array ( [ID] => 61 [TIMESTAMP_X] => 2020-06-03 12:24:32 [IBLOCK_ID] => 2 [NAME] => Читайте также (Блок 3) [ACTIVE] => Y [SORT] => 501 [CODE] => MATERIAL_TOPIC3 [DEFAULT_VALUE] => [PROPERTY_TYPE] => E [ROW_COUNT] => 1 [COL_COUNT] => 30 [LIST_TYPE] => L [MULTIPLE] => Y [XML_ID] => [FILE_TYPE] => [MULTIPLE_CNT] => 5 [TMP_ID] => [LINK_IBLOCK_ID] => 2 [WITH_DESCRIPTION] => N [SEARCHABLE] => N [FILTRABLE] => N [IS_REQUIRED] => N [VERSION] => 2 [USER_TYPE] => EAutocomplete [USER_TYPE_SETTINGS] => Array ( [VIEW] => E [SHOW_ADD] => N [MAX_WIDTH] => 0 [MIN_HEIGHT] => 24 [MAX_HEIGHT] => 1000 [BAN_SYM] => ,; [REP_SYM] => [OTHER_REP_SYM] => [IBLOCK_MESS] => N ) [HINT] => [VALUE] => [DESCRIPTION] => [~VALUE] => [~DESCRIPTION] => ) [MATERIAL_TOPIC4] => Array ( [ID] => 76 [TIMESTAMP_X] => 2020-06-04 13:04:00 [IBLOCK_ID] => 2 [NAME] => Читайте также [ACTIVE] => Y [SORT] => 501 [CODE] => MATERIAL_TOPIC4 [DEFAULT_VALUE] => [PROPERTY_TYPE] => E [ROW_COUNT] => 1 [COL_COUNT] => 30 [LIST_TYPE] => L [MULTIPLE] => Y [XML_ID] => [FILE_TYPE] => [MULTIPLE_CNT] => 5 [TMP_ID] => [LINK_IBLOCK_ID] => 2 [WITH_DESCRIPTION] => N [SEARCHABLE] => N [FILTRABLE] => N [IS_REQUIRED] => N [VERSION] => 2 [USER_TYPE] => EAutocomplete [USER_TYPE_SETTINGS] => Array ( [VIEW] => E [SHOW_ADD] => N [MAX_WIDTH] => 0 [MIN_HEIGHT] => 24 [MAX_HEIGHT] => 1000 [BAN_SYM] => ,; [REP_SYM] => [OTHER_REP_SYM] => [IBLOCK_MESS] => N ) [HINT] => [VALUE] => [DESCRIPTION] => [~VALUE] => [~DESCRIPTION] => ) [GALL_1] => Array ( [ID] => 66 [TIMESTAMP_X] => 2021-02-04 14:02:00 [IBLOCK_ID] => 2 [NAME] => Первый блок галереи [ACTIVE] => Y [SORT] => 800 [CODE] => GALL_1 [DEFAULT_VALUE] => [PROPERTY_TYPE] => F [ROW_COUNT] => 1 [COL_COUNT] => 30 [LIST_TYPE] => L [MULTIPLE] => Y [XML_ID] => [FILE_TYPE] => jpg, gif, bmp, png, jpeg, webp [MULTIPLE_CNT] => 5 [TMP_ID] => [LINK_IBLOCK_ID] => 0 [WITH_DESCRIPTION] => Y [SEARCHABLE] => N [FILTRABLE] => N [IS_REQUIRED] => N [VERSION] => 2 [USER_TYPE] => [USER_TYPE_SETTINGS] => [HINT] => [VALUE] => [DESCRIPTION] => [~VALUE] => [~DESCRIPTION] => ) [GALL_1_TITLE] => Array ( [ID] => 212 [TIMESTAMP_X] => 2021-02-04 12:15:03 [IBLOCK_ID] => 2 [NAME] => Подпись к первой галереи [ACTIVE] => Y [SORT] => 800 [CODE] => GALL_1_TITLE [DEFAULT_VALUE] => [PROPERTY_TYPE] => S [ROW_COUNT] => 1 [COL_COUNT] => 100 [LIST_TYPE] => L [MULTIPLE] => N [XML_ID] => [FILE_TYPE] => [MULTIPLE_CNT] => 5 [TMP_ID] => [LINK_IBLOCK_ID] => 0 [WITH_DESCRIPTION] => N [SEARCHABLE] => N [FILTRABLE] => N [IS_REQUIRED] => N [VERSION] => 2 [USER_TYPE] => [USER_TYPE_SETTINGS] => [HINT] => [VALUE] => [DESCRIPTION] => [~VALUE] => [~DESCRIPTION] => ) [GALL_2] => Array ( [ID] => 67 [TIMESTAMP_X] => 2021-02-04 14:44:45 [IBLOCK_ID] => 2 [NAME] => Второй блок галереи [ACTIVE] => Y [SORT] => 801 [CODE] => GALL_2 [DEFAULT_VALUE] => [PROPERTY_TYPE] => F [ROW_COUNT] => 1 [COL_COUNT] => 30 [LIST_TYPE] => L [MULTIPLE] => Y [XML_ID] => [FILE_TYPE] => jpg, gif, bmp, png, jpeg, webp [MULTIPLE_CNT] => 5 [TMP_ID] => [LINK_IBLOCK_ID] => 0 [WITH_DESCRIPTION] => N [SEARCHABLE] => N [FILTRABLE] => N [IS_REQUIRED] => N [VERSION] => 2 [USER_TYPE] => [USER_TYPE_SETTINGS] => [HINT] => [VALUE] => [DESCRIPTION] => [~VALUE] => [~DESCRIPTION] => ) [GALL_2_TITLE] => Array ( [ID] => 213 [TIMESTAMP_X] => 2021-02-04 12:51:21 [IBLOCK_ID] => 2 [NAME] => Подпись ко второй галереи [ACTIVE] => Y [SORT] => 801 [CODE] => GALL_2_TITLE [DEFAULT_VALUE] => [PROPERTY_TYPE] => S [ROW_COUNT] => 1 [COL_COUNT] => 100 [LIST_TYPE] => L [MULTIPLE] => N [XML_ID] => [FILE_TYPE] => [MULTIPLE_CNT] => 5 [TMP_ID] => [LINK_IBLOCK_ID] => 0 [WITH_DESCRIPTION] => N [SEARCHABLE] => N [FILTRABLE] => N [IS_REQUIRED] => N [VERSION] => 2 [USER_TYPE] => [USER_TYPE_SETTINGS] => [HINT] => [VALUE] => [DESCRIPTION] => [~VALUE] => [~DESCRIPTION] => ) [GALL_3] => Array ( [ID] => 68 [TIMESTAMP_X] => 2021-02-04 14:44:45 [IBLOCK_ID] => 2 [NAME] => Третий блок галереи [ACTIVE] => Y [SORT] => 802 [CODE] => GALL_3 [DEFAULT_VALUE] => [PROPERTY_TYPE] => F [ROW_COUNT] => 1 [COL_COUNT] => 100 [LIST_TYPE] => L [MULTIPLE] => Y [XML_ID] => [FILE_TYPE] => jpg, gif, bmp, png, jpeg, webp [MULTIPLE_CNT] => 5 [TMP_ID] => [LINK_IBLOCK_ID] => 0 [WITH_DESCRIPTION] => N [SEARCHABLE] => N [FILTRABLE] => N [IS_REQUIRED] => N [VERSION] => 2 [USER_TYPE] => 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Башкирская автономия век спустя: почему об этом нужно помнить

14:33, 20 марта 2021

| c3309

20 марта 1919 года в результате подписания Соглашения между Башкирским правительством и Советской властью была образована Башкирская Автономная Советская Социалистическая Республика. О преобразованиях и последствиях этого шага, а также почему важно чтить историю, размышляет эксперт и политолог Рустем Шайахметов.

Башкирская автономия век спустя: почему об этом нужно помнить

Февральская революция 1917 года, уничтожившая Российскую империю, запустила процессы системной дезинтеграции, разрушающие страну. Катализатором распада мировой державы стало неумелое управление государством Временным правительством. Последствиями этого стали всплеск сепаратизма, обострение национальных противоречий, а также образование неподконтрольных Российскому государству правительств на территории страны.

Вначале были с белыми

Возрождение национального самосознания народов России осложнялось реалиями гражданской войны, где зачастую все воевали против всех, и вчерашний союзник становился врагом и наоборот. Не стала исключением и Башкирия. Первоначально Башкирскую автономию не признавали ни белые, ни красные. И арест членов Башкирского правительства в феврале 1918 года большевиками достаточно показателен – он стал одним из факторов, склонивших к сотрудничеству Башкирское правительство с белыми. Значимым фактором, влияющим на расстановку сил, было создание автономной системы управления в Малой Башкирии и формирование башкирских дивизий, первоначально участвующих в боях на стороне Белой армии. Когда Колчак провозгласил политику непризнания автономий и национальных войск и издал распоряжение о роспуске Башкирского правительства, ситуация резко изменилась. Башкирская автономия начала переговоры о заключении соглашения с Советской властью и о переходе башкирских войск на сторону Красной Армии.

Первая автономия

Переход Башкирской автономии на сторону Советской власти изменил расклад сил на Урале и способствовал поражению Колчака. Участие башкирских войск в разгроме Юденича под Петроградом стало ключевым фактором победы Красной Армии.

Соглашение центральной Советской власти с Башкирским правительством о Советской автономии Башкирии было подписано 20 марта 1919 года председателем Совнаркома В.И. Лениным. Башкирия первая и единственная автономная республика России, созданная на договорных началах. Создание Башкирской автономии стало первым этапом федерализации России, определяющим государственное устройство нашей страны, существующее до настоящего времени. По-разному сложились судьбы участников тех событий. Ахмет-Заки Валиди, один из основателей Башкирской автономии, в итоге бежал из России, став ученым-востоковедом с мировым именем.

Башкирия в годы СССР

Двадцатый век очень изменил Башкирию. Открытие нефтяных месторождений в 30-х годах превратило аграрный регион в крупнейший экономический центр страны. Создание крупнейших авиапромышленных предприятий, машиностроительных комплексов, химических производств преобразовало республику. К сожалению, распад Советского Союза нивелировал многие наши достижения, но тем не менее Башкортостан все еще один из ведущих российских регионов.

Наша сила – в культуре

Обычно 20 марта в республике проходит незаметно, хотя в этот день зародилась государственность Башкирии, определившая наше современное государственное устройство. Сила Башкортостана не только в экономике, но и в истории, культуре. Необходимо формировать историческую память у детей о наших истоках, национальных исторических лидерах, создавая гордость за достижения наших предшественников. Я против помпезности и официоза, но есть же и другие возможности формирования народной памяти о значимых вехах нашей истории. Надеюсь, что историческое сообщество и власть смогут найти необходимые коммуникации и мы не будем забывать важные исторические события.


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